Q2 Issue 8
Titanium Plays an Important Role in Corrosion Awareness Dialogue
Corrosion Awareness Day was April 24. The annual date has been set aside to focus global attention on the costly and sometimes dangerous problems associated with corrosion and its effects on infrastructure, industry and daily life. For the titanium industry, it’s an opportunity to distinguish itself and become part of an international dialogue to highlight the superior corrosion-resistant properties of titanium as a potential solution to these problems.
George Hays, the executive director of the New York-based World Corrosion Organization (WCO), in an open letter posted on the group’s website (www.corrosion.org), wrote that Corrosion Awareness Day intended “to educate the public, industries and government agencies of the deleterious effects of corrosion on our infrastructures worldwide.”
How big a problem is corrosion? According to Hays, corrosion represents an annual worldwide cost of $3 trillion for infrastructure and industry—the cost to repair, replace and maintain critical systems. Here in the United States, Hays said the cost for corrosion control and repair represents about 3.3 percent of annual gross domestic product (GDP) or well over $300 billion.
More than simply flag problems and the soaring costs associated with corrosion, Hays, during a recent telephone interview, said Corrosion Awareness Day also is intended to inform the public, governments and industry leaders about practical solutions, saying that “corrosion is a phenomenon that can be controlled using existing technologies and better design and engineering practices.” He estimated that it would be possible to reduce that global $3 trillion cost by one-third.
Rob Henson, the chair of the International Titanium Association’s (ITA) Industrial Committee and the manager of business development for VSMPO-Tirus U.S., said titanium has made strides in recent years to become a meaningful voice in the international corrosion conversation. However, he also acknowledged the titanium industry still has a considerable amount of work to do when it comes to educating people on the benefits of titanium, as well as dispelling lingering myths. In many corners, in industry and government, he said titanium is still seen as “an exotic, expensive material that’s difficult to handle. We need to continue our efforts to education people, on a much broader scale, about titanium.”
Regis Baldauff, director, industrial marketing, Titanium Industries Inc., Rockaway, NJ, in a recent presentation at a TITANIUM conference, supported Henson’s assessment of titanium as a material of choice for corrosion resistance, saying it has demonstrated “years of trouble-free seawater service in chemical, oil refining and desalination systems,” and is “immune to microbiologically induced/influenced corrosion.” Baldauff also said titanium, in comparison with competing materials such as stainless steel or copper/nickel alloys, provides life-cycle cost advantages.
Eugene Liening, a member of the WCO’s board of administrators, said the correct approach to address corrosion issues should always start with proper design. He said design is the key for industrial projects as well as municipal infrastructure. “It starts with design using the correct materials,” Liening said. “It includes developing corrosion-control strategies, faithfully executing those designs and strategies, and then maintaining a commitment for inspection and repair.”
The International Titanium Association’s committee for Industrial Applications will host the World Corrosion Organization’s Director General, George Hays as a distinguished guest speaker at the upcoming TITANIUM USA 2015 Conference this October 4-7th in Orlando, Florida USA at the Association’s annual US conference & expo.
“Bringing Director Hays to the annual TITANIUM meeting”, said Henson, “will provide members with a high level view of the global cost of corrosion which is estimated at 3% of global GDP”. The role of titanium in the construction of reliable process equipment for power generation, municipal water supply, waste water treatment and air quality management systems is well known to only a small segment of the global engineering community. To achieve broader awareness of the role of titanium in robust infrastructure projects we are working to assure titanium is included in this global conversation on corrosion. More details of Director’s Hays’ message will be forthcoming and all members interested in the industrial applications of titanium are encouraged to attend.
Contact Jennifer Simpson, executive director of the ITA located in Denver, Colorado by telephone at 1-303-404-2221 or visit website (www.titanium.org) for more details on the Association’s involvement with the WCO in coming months.
Interaction of Titanium, Oxygen Critical For Understanding Welding Technology
Introduction and overview:
Understanding the interactions of oxygen and titanium is a necessary first step in understanding the titanium welding process. Titanium’s surface oxide is responsible for its remarkable corrosion resistance. A thickening of the transparent oxide is responsible for a repeating rainbow of brilliant surface colors. An oxygen rich surface layer on the metal leads to low surface ductility and is a primary cause of cracking in forming and drawing. Oxygen present in all grades of titanium metal itself is a strengthening element. However, excess oxygen in welds that have been improperly shielded is a primary cause of embrittlement.
Titanium oxide provides corrosion resistance
Titanium is a reactive metal that will readily combine with many elements or break down many compounds. Titanium exposed to air, water or other oxygen sources rapidly forms a tenacious, hard, continuous, non-porous, transparent, and self-healing surface oxide. The stable and chemically inactive titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface is the source of titanium’s resistance to corrosive and chemical attack.
On thick sections, even where the oxide film is ruptured, titanium surface is stable at oxygen concentration below about 35 percent (air is an example) at all pressures. Titanium is stable in pure oxygen at atmospheric pressure up to 1200°F (650°C) or up to about 100 psi up to 600°F (315°C) and at about 350 psi, room temperature may be sufficient to cause violent ignition. Titanium powders, fines from dry sanding of titanium surfaces, and light chips from machining operations, all of which have a high surface to volume ratio, will burn in air if ignited. Care in generating, handling, and storing these materials is required. The reaction allows titanium to be cut with oxygen, like carbon steel, although the resulting contaminated surface must be removed.
TiO2 surface oxide film
When a clean or unoxidized titanium metal surface is exposed to oxygen (for example, in machining), a TiO2 monolayer forms essentially instantly and then continues to grow, forming increasingly stable oxides. The transparent oxide film thickness increases to a limiting thickness about 40 nM at room temperature in a matter of a few hours. The protective oxide is sometimes enhanced for corrosion resistance by methods that first remove surface contamination (mainly iron) and then reform or build the oxide film thickness on a clean surface.
At about 1100oF (600oC), the nature of the oxide begins to change to a less stable, porous film, which allows an increased rate of oxidation below the film. As time and temperature increase, the film becomes less adherent, loses transparency, and becomes matte gray in color, then cracks and spalls to form a loose scale.
Oxygen diffusion into underlying titanium
Oxygen diffuses from the surface film into the metal beneath. Diffusion rates are very slow up to 1000 to 1200oF, but as temperature increases, the rate of diffusion increases. The oxygen diffusing (or dissolving) into the metal eventually causes a brittle oxygen rich surface layer, called alpha case in alloys, to form. Prolonged exposure at temperatures above 1200oF (650oC) will result in deeper embrittlement. Hot-forming operations, which may typically be conducted at temperatures of 1750 to 1400oF (950-750oC) typically employ anti-scaling coatings, but still require grinding or other mechanical means to remove the oxygen rich layer and heavy oxide scale.
Oxygen as a Strengthening Element
Oxygen in solution up to about 0.35 percent is an important strengthening element in unalloyed titanium as well as in alloys. Unalloyed titanium gains its strength primarily due to the presence of elemental O, N, and C occupying sites between titanium atoms in the regular metal matrix. These elements are termed interstitial elements, as opposed to “substitute” elements like iron, which replace titanium atoms in the matrix.
Titanium’s surface color associated with welding
Iridescent colors form only on solidified material and are an indicator (and only an indicator) of post-solidification thermal history and exposure to oxygen. Straw, light blue, and even iridescent dark blue color is usually interpreted as surface contamination, accompanied by diffusion of oxygen into the weld metal. This damage can be repaired by removing of few mils of material mechanically.
A gray matte color (and sometimes dark blue) is usually interpreted as exposure to higher temperature and is taken as an indicator that the entire weld is contaminated. A loose yellow and white oxide indicates a complete failure of shielding and requires removal of the weld and some underlying material.
A contaminated weld is remelted under adequate gas protection, it can appear bright and silver, but it will remain hard and brittle. Similarly, a weld which is contaminated by torch gas may well appear bright and silver if it is protected by trailing shielding from oxidation after solidification. These interpretations apply to both front and back surfaces of a root weld pass.
Weld contamination; extreme oxygen levels in weld metal
At very high oxygen levels, well above the typical 0.06 to 0.35 wt. percent in commercial grades of unalloyed titanium, hardness increases significantly, and the accompanying lack of ductility is unacceptable for most applications.
While cleaning and other good practice must be observed, inert gas shielding is probably the most important aspect of titanium welding. Shielding of the molten weld pool (both front and back surfaces) is most critical because the weld pool acts like a perfectly mixed reactor. Oxygen that contacts the surface is immediately absorbed and distributed throughout the molten pool. Even a momentary interruption of protection allows large amounts of oxygen to enter the molten weld pool. The effect, as the pool coalesces and freezes, is extreme embrittlement—increased hardness and loss of ductility. The effect can be very localized.
Oxygen ranges in AWS filler metals
In 2004, the American Welding Society (AWS) A5.16-2004 Filler Metal Specification added oxygen ranges to all filler metal chemistries (replacing singular upper limits) and adjusted the remaining residual chemistry (iron, nitrogen, carbon) limits to lower levels based on typical levels in commercial filler metals. This was done because oxygen in some grades being produced was so low that the weld deposit would not achieve the desired strength in the absence of significant base metal dilution.
This article is an edited and condensed version of a technical paper written by James A. McMaster, owner and founder of MC Consulting, an engineering consulting firm based in Huletts Landing, New York. Contact information—phone: 518-499-0331; e-mail: email@example.com.
Propelled by Aerospace Sector, Titanium Scrap Market Achieves a Healthy Balance
The scrap/revert market for the North American titanium industry has achieved a healthy business balance, a trend that should be sustained for the remainder of this year. Aerospace continues to be the bellwether sector for titanium, helping to overcome more tepid business conditions found in other key markets such as industrial, consumer and medical.
According to information posted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), receipts of titanium scrap for the first three quarters of 2014 totaled 36,700 metric tons (MT). Full-year scrap receipts in 2013 registered 52,600 MT, compared with 48,800 MT in 2012. Titanium scrap receipts are divided into two categories: “home” scrap produced in-house; and purchased scrap bought on the open market from recycling brokers.
Titanium industry sources estimate that the size of the global titanium scrap market is 80,000 MTs for aerospace titanium scrap, and 80,000 MTs for mixed ferro-titanium scrap, which is used in steel production.
Edward J. Newman, senior vice president of United Alloys and Metals Inc., Columbus, OH, an international processor of titanium, stainless steel and superalloy scrap, said that, beginning in early 2014, surging aerospace manufacturing has boosted the titanium market. In recent business conferences, Boeing has forecasted long-term demand for 36,770 new airplanes, valued at $5.2 trillion through 2033. Airbus, with an outlook that runs through 2032, projects demand for over 29,000 new passenger aircraft and freighters, worth $4.4 trillion.
Newman, who also serves on the board of directors for the International Titanium Association, Denver, CO, said ever since the great economic meltdown of 2008/2009 there has been “oversupply of metal at every stage of the titanium market. It took a long time to burn off that inventory. Now inventories are under control and the supply chain has leveled out. Today everyone is happy with business conditions in the titanium scrap market, in terms of volumes and demand.” Sources indicated these positive business trends for titanium scrap should continue through the balance of this year and into 2016.
Other titanium scrap processors and distributors concurred with Newman’s observations. Vasily Semeniuta, president of Grandis Titanium Co., Rancho Santa Margarita, CA, described the titanium scrap market as “in balance. (Scrap) Supply is a bit more than demand, but there is plenty of work and plenty of scrap available,” Semeniuta said. Another West Coast scrap processor, who requested anonymity, said that, thanks to the aerospace sector, the titanium scrap market remains healthy, especially when compared to the current fortunes of the steel and copper scrap markets. He said those markets have sagged in recent months due to oversupply, a strong dollar, and sluggish business conditions in Europe and Asia.
While aerospace continues to be the engine driving the titanium scrap market, other key sectors, such as industrial, medical and consumer goods have lagged. Newman explained the industrial market typically is spotty when it comes to consistently generating demand for titanium, and in turn, scrap volumes. “It goes up and down, big project to big project,” he said, citing chemical processing, heat exchanger and desalination programs as prime examples. Medical and consumer, by comparison, are small, specialty markets for titanium.
Closed-Loop Recycling Systems
There are two factors that have altered the dynamics of the titanium scrap market, according to Newman and other sources. First is the ongoing focus for developing closed-loop revert programs in the aerospace business. It’s a loop that stretches from vendors to original equipment manufacturers and includes melting, forging, machining, finishing and assembly facilities.
Boeing Commercial Airplanes has been the primary driver in promoting the closed-loop scrap recycling concept for titanium. During the last three years Boeing executives have emphasized closed-loop recycling as a critical element in the titanium supply chain. When it comes to sourcing titanium, Boeing is looking to achieve a “system balance,” which takes into account demand, inventory levels, and revert volume. It’s a recycling strategy designed to keep aerospace-quality scrap within the aerospace supply chain. In 2013 Boeing’s closed-loop efforts recovered 8 million pounds of titanium and 13 million pounds of aluminum. For 2014, those levels were expected to reach 10 million pounds for titanium and 19 million pounds for aluminum.
Second, upstream consolidation in the titanium supply chain is affecting the flow of scrap. Major titanium producers, in recent years, have purchased titanium casting, forging and assembly operations. Newman said the thrust is for titanium producers to capture the manufacturing resources offered by these acquisitions, thereby expanding their reach in the supply chain. The scrap generated by these acquisitions translates as an important side benefit.
Last November Pittsburgh-based aluminum giant Alcoa finalized its purchase of Firth Rixson, a British producer of seamless titanium and superalloy rolled rings for jet engines. News reports at the time stated Firth Rixson strengthens Alcoa’s aerospace portfolio and “accelerates Alcoa’s transformation to a multi-material enterprise. The acquisition increases its offerings made of nickel-based superalloys, titanium, stainless steel and advanced aluminum alloys.”
Precision Castparts Corp. Portland, OR, has moved aggressively on the acquisition trail, and in early 2013 completed its deal to buy titanium producer Titanium Metals Corp. (Timet). In 2011 ATI purchased the forging and investment casting assets of Ladish Co. Inc. RTI, in 2012, acquired Remmele Engineering Inc., an integrated producer of titanium components.
Given the growing importance of scrap in the titanium supply chain, especially as dictated by the aerospace sector, several companies are developing technologies to further enhance the value of the material. One group, VDM Metals GmbH, Werdohl, Germany, will present a technical paper (“Electron Beam Cold-Hearth Remelting of Titanium and Scrap Control by LIBS Technology”) at the TITANIUM EUROPE Conference and Exhibition, which will be held May 11-13 in Birmingham, UK.
Electron beam cold-hearth melting is an established technology that provides superior refining for titanium. VDM Metals has been researching new recycling strategies in collaboration with Leibniz University of Hanover (Germany), and other industrial partners. In its paper, VDM Metals explains that eliminating impurities and inclusions (porosity) from titanium alloy scrap is essential if the scrap is to be used in critical aerospace rotating parts. Titanium is a difficult material to mill (compared with steel or aluminum), which results in high tool wear. Tool material particles represent a source of contamination for titanium scrap. Contamination also can come from other scrap metals, welding electrodes and coolant/lubricant materials.
“The melting of Ti-6Al-4V (a workhorse aerospace alloy) in an electron beam furnace is a challenge,” the paper states. “It has been shown that it’s absolutely necessary to obtain a stable process with a constant melting rate. The scrap should always be free from contamination.”
To meet stringent aerospace specifications, VDM Metals is developing a system designed to provide 100-percent scrap inspection, using a technology known as LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy). The project encompasses continuous, inline scrap control with integrated analysis to identify low- and high-density inclusions.
VDM Metals currently is operating a pilot plant to demonstrate the system, with an LIBS unit built by SECOPTA GmbH, Berlin. The technology, if proven effective, would garner significant interest in the North American titanium market. It’s estimated there are at least 14 cold-hearth furnaces operating in the United States. Six new furnaces have come on line during the last seven years, including RTI’s facility in Canton, OH, and Timet’s installation in Morgantown, PA.
Researchers Develop Nanotechnology for Water Treatment
This article was published in the Dove Press Journal: Nanotechnology, Science and Applications, Jan. 6, 2015. The story, as it appears here, is a condensed version of the original article, edited as an overview of titanium’s role in nanotechnology. Dove Medical Press Ltd. (website: http://www.dovepress.com) is a privately held UK company specializing in the publication of open-access peer-reviewed journals across the broad spectrum of science, technology and especially medicine. Dove’s editorial office is located in Auckland, New Zealand.
Important challenges in the global water situation, mainly resulting from worldwide population growth and climate change, require novel innovative water technologies in order to ensure a supply of drinking water and reduce global water pollution. Against this background, the adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities in technological developments for advanced water and wastewater technology processes.
The long-term development of the global water situation is closely connected to the growth of the world population and global climate change. Constant growth of the world’s population, which is forecasted to be nearly doubled from 3.4 billion in 2009 to 6.3 billion people in 2050, is attended by a predicted needed growth of agriculture production of 70 percent, by 2050. Thus, the demand for fresh water is growing dramatically, in particular for food production, since 70 percent of the world’s freshwater withdrawals are already accounted for by agricultural irrigation. Currently, 64 billion cubic meters of fresh water are progressively consumed each year.
The arid regions of North Africa and nearly half of the European countries (approximately 70 percent of the population) are confronted with a lack of water supply. Even industrialized countries like the United States, providing highly innovative technologies for saving and purifying water, show the difficulty of exhausted water reservoirs. In China, 550 of the 600 largest cities suffer from a water shortage, since the biggest rivers are immensely polluted and even their use for irrigation has to be omitted, not to mention treatment for potable water.
Leading climate impact researchers have shown that climate change possibly exacerbates the regional and global water scarcity. They predict that global warming will confront an additional approximately 15 percent of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources and will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (500 m3 per capita per year) by at least another 40 percent compared with the effect of population growth alone.
Heavy rainfall can lead to soil erosion and soil, allowing pathogens to enter water systems along with soil components and nutrients. Increased temperatures in air and raw water can affect the drinking water hygiene in respective storage systems as well as in drinking water pipelines, resulting in harmful infectious illnesses. In both developing and industrialized countries, a growing number of contaminants like micropollutants are entering water systems.
Conventional decontamination processes such as chlorination and ozonation consume a high amount of chemical agents and, furthermore, can produce toxic byproducts. The adaptation of highly advanced nanotechnology to traditional process engineering offers new opportunities for development of advanced water and wastewater technology processes.
Major investments in nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is being promoted as one of the most challenging key technologies of this century. Billions of dollars have been spent on research framework programs intended to promote nanotechnology and to bring novel materials and processes to market. For example, the 2015 federal budget has allocated more than $1.5 billion to the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which has nanotechnology-related activities ongoing in 20 departments and independent agencies.
Horizon 2020, the research framework program in the European Union (EU), provides $110 billion over a period of seven years for research and innovation projects, including $92 million for water innovations and $686 million for nanotechnology in 2014. In order to combine water and nanotechnology, there are joint calls for “low-energy solutions for drinking water production” that involve implementation of novel nanoengineered materials and processes for water applications.
Since every country has its own complex laws and guidelines, the following gives only a rough overview of the way the EU and the United States deal with implementation of novel regulations pertaining to nanomaterials and their exposure in water systems.
The most important general problem with all legal approaches results from the inability to assign nanomaterials with their crossover functions to an individual legal framework. In Europe, nanomaterials are regulated by REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals) because they are covered by the REACH definition of a chemical “substance.” REACH is an EU program that regulates production and use of chemical substances and their potential impact on both human health and the environment. The European Water Framework Directive, which established a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters, and groundwater, refers to REACH for evaluation of priority substances. Due to their close connection, any amendment of REACH related to nanomaterials is automatically implemented in the water directive.
In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency has permitted limited manufacture of new nanoscale chemical materials through use of administrative orders or significant new use rules under the Toxic Substances Control Act. The developing of corresponding significant new use rules started in 2010 and these are being continually expanded. The agency has also allowed the manufacture of new nanoscale chemical materials under the terms of certain regulatory exemptions, but only in circumstances with severely controlled exposures to protect against unreasonable risk.
Nanometals and nanometal oxides
Nanoscale metal oxides are promising alternatives to activated carbon and effective adsorbents to remove heavy metals and radionuclides. As well as having a high specific surface area, they feature a short intra-particle diffusion distance and are compressible without a significant reduction of surface area. Some of these nanoscale metal oxides (such as nanomaghemite and nanomagnetite) are superparamagnetic, which facilitates separation and recovery by a low-gradient magnetic field. They can be employed for adsorptive media filters and slurry reactors.
Nanosilver has been used in the photo development process since the late 1800s, and has been registered with the Environmental Protection Agency for use in swimming pool algaecides since 1954 and drinking water filters since the 1970s. Although nanosilver exhibits a strong and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, it has hardly any harmful effects in humans. It is already applied to point-of-use water disinfection systems and antibiofouling surfaces.
Nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), featuring high chemical stability and low human toxicity at a cheap price, is utilizable in disinfection and decontamination processes. The main advantage of nano-TiO2 over nanosilver is the nearly endless lifetime of such coatings, since TiO2 as a catalyst remains unchanged during the degradation process of organic compounds and micro-organisms. The antimicrobial effect of nanosilver is based on the continuous release of silver ions.
After a certain operation period, depending on the thickness and composition of the nanosilver layers, the coating has to be renewed or the complete device, including the bulk material, has to be disposed of, leading to significant replacement costs. However, compared with TiO2, which needs energy-consuming ultraviolet lamps for activation, nanosilver kills bacteria with no need of additional energy-consuming devices, making nanosilver a favorable disinfectant for remote areas.
Membranes and membrane processes
Membrane separation processes are rapidly advancing applications for water and wastewater treatment. Membranes provide a physical barrier for substances depending on their pore size and molecule size. Membrane technology is well established in the water and wastewater area as a reliable and largely automated process. Nanofiltration is one of the membrane filtration techniques and can be defined as a pressure-driven process wherein molecules and particles less than 0.5 nm to 1 nm are rejected by the membrane. Nanofiltration membranes are characterized by a unique charge-based repulsion mechanism allowing the separation of various ions. They are mostly applied for the reduction of hardness, color, odor, and heavy metal ions from groundwater. The conversion of sea water into potable water (desalination) is another prosperous field of application since comparable desalination technologies are very cost-intensive.
Nanocomposite membranes can be considered as a new group of filtration materials comprising mixed matrix membranes and surface-functionalized membranes. Mixed matrix membranes use nanofillers, which are added in a matrix material. In most cases, the nanofillers are inorganic and embedded in a polymeric or inorganic oxide matrix. These nanofillers feature a larger specific surface area leading to a higher surface-to-mass ratio. Metal oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3, TiO2) can help to increase the mechanical and thermal stability as well as permeate flux of polymeric membranes. Antimicrobial nanoparticles, like nanosilver, and (photo) catalytic nanomaterials, like bimetallic nanoparticles, TiO2, are mainly used to increase resistance to fouling.
Specially designed coatings, such as nanosilver and TiO2 layers, prevent fouling of membranes or heat exchangers and/or exhibit a decontamination effect on organic pollutants. Due to their low thickness, such nanoscale functional surface layers require few materials and maintain the surface profile of the bulk material while at the same time immobilizing potentially harmful nanoparticles.
Photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process that is employed in the field of water and wastewater treatment, in particular for oxidative elimination of micropollutants and microbial pathogens. Most organic pollutants can be degraded by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Due to its high availability, low toxicity, cost efficiency, and well known material properties, TiO2 is widely utilized as a photocatalyst. When TiO2 is irradiated by ultraviolet light with an appropriate wavelength in the range of 200–400 nm, electrons will be photo excited and move into the conduction band.
Photocatalytic TiO2 benefits from its low price, high availability, inertness, and broad-spectrum effect on the chemical degradation of the majority of organic contaminants and micro-organisms. This makes it an ideal, robust, durable, and effective nanomaterial for chemical-free water and wastewater treatment processes in both large-scale and small-scale treatment plants.
However, up until now, the efficacy of ultraviolet-visible photocatalytic TiO2 in particular has been relatively low compared with similar oxidation processes like ozonation. Nanosilver benefits from its low toxicity, high availability, and well proven bactericidal effect. However, since it is dissolved during the duration of the process, its application is restricted to low feed volumes where a maximum life time can be achieved, for example, with point-of-use devices.
If highly effective nano-TiO2—able to be activated by visible light—can be developed successfully, photocatalysis will become one of the most promising water and wastewater treatment technologies due to its flexible and manifold implementation and easy scalability.
Activation of TiO2 is usually induced by an ultraviolet lamp, but sunlight in addition to artificial light sources is also permitted. KRONO Clean 7000, made by Kronos Inc., Cranbury, NJ, is a novel photocatalyst where the bandgap is shifted to a lower energy, enabling use of a broader spectrum of sunlight. Besides TiO2, tungsten trioxide, and some fullerene derivatives such as Fullerol poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) as well as composites with TiO2 have a photocatalytic effect under visible light irradiation.
Limitations of nanobased materials
Commercialization of nanoengineered materials for water and wastewater technology strongly depends on their impact on the aqueous environment. Numerous studies including toxicity tests, life cycle analysis, technology assessment, and pathways and dispersal of nanoparticles in water bodies have been carried out in order to evaluate the health risks of nanomaterials. The results of these studies have led to a better understanding of the behavior of nanoparticles such as TiO2, and silver nanoparticles in aqueous systems; thus, stakeholders from administration, politics, and industry are supported to create new laws and regulations or modify present ones. However, many studies have yielded contradictory results, since no general standards and conditions for experimental tests and measurements have been determined, which slows down the necessary decision processes.
Nanomaterials in water do not directly affect humans, but there is the possibility of uptake of nanomaterials via consumption of fish, so the impact of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms needs to be taken into consideration. An extensive overview of the miscellaneous effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on various kinds of aquatic organisms is given in a case study published by the US Environmental Protection Agency in 2010. In that study, different types of nano-TiO2, different pathways of entry, and different effects on the environment and organisms were shown by comparing several studies of the influence of nanoparticles, exemplified by TiO2, on different kinds of organisms, including bacteria, algae, invertebrates, fish, and plants. Various acute effects on algae could be demonstrated depending on the type and concentration of TiO2; however, the median effective concentration depended mainly on the size of the particles.
There is a significant need for novel advanced water technologies, in particular to ensure a high quality of drinking water, eliminate micropollutants, and intensify industrial production processes by the use of flexibly adjustable water treatment systems. Nanoengineered materials, such as nanoadsorbents, nanometals, nanomembranes, and photocatalysts, offer the potential for novel water technologies that can be easily adapted to customer-specific applications. Most of them are compatible with existing treatment technologies and can be integrated simply in conventional modules.
One of the most important advantages of nanomaterials when compared with conventional water technologies is their ability to integrate various properties, resulting in multifunctional systems such as nanocomposite membranes that enable both particle retention and elimination of contaminants.
However, there are still several drawbacks that have to be negotiated. Materials functionalized with nanoparticles incorporated or deposited on their surface have risk potential, since nanoparticles might release and emit to the environment where they can accumulate for long periods of time. Up until now, no online monitoring systems exist that provide reliable real-time measurement data on the quality and quantity of nanoparticles present only in trace amounts in water, thus offering a high innovation potential. In order to minimize the health risk, several national and international regulations and laws are in preparation.
A technical limitation of nanoengineered water technologies is that they are rarely adaptable to mass processes, and at present are not competitive with conventional treatment technologies.
Despite the many challenges, nanoengineered materials offer great potential for water innovations in the coming decades, in particular for decentralized treatment systems, point-of-use devices, and heavily degradable contaminants.
National Nanotechnology Initiative
The size and scale of nanotechnology is difficult to grasp. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. There are 25,400,000 nanometers in an inch. A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000 nanometers thick.
The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in Arlington, VA (website: http://www.nano.gov), is a U.S. government research and development initiative involving 20 departments and independent agencies working together toward the shared vision of “a future in which the ability to understand and control matter at the nanoscale leads to a revolution in technology and industry that benefits society.” With the support of the NNI, nanotechnology research and development is taking place in academic, government, and industry laboratories across the United States.
The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology on Dec. 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. With the development of the scanning tunneling microscope and the atomic force microscope, the age of nanotechnology was born.
ITA’s Women in Titanium Encourages International Mentoring
At the Women in Titanium (WiT) meeting held earlier this year in February, plans have been initiated to encourage all ITA Members to become actively involved in mentoring programs.
WiT has elected to support two Mentoring groups in particular: The “MWM” - Million Women Mentors (www.millionwomenmentors.org) and the “ITP” - International Tele-Mentor Program (ITP) (www.telementor.org).
Million Women Mentors is an initiative of STEMconnector, a collaboration of over 30 corporate sponsors and 58 partners who reach over 30 million girls and women. This initiative will support the engagement of women and men to serve as mentors for at least 1 Million girls and women by 2018.
MWM supports the engagement of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) male and female mentors to increase the interest and confidence of girls and women to persist and succeed in STEM programs and careers. Over 200,000 pledges to mentor girls and women in STEM have been received to date.
Managed out of Washington DC, MWM proposes mentors offer 20 hours in mentoring time and they have a published Mentor Action Guide which offers suggested activities for mentoring a girl or women for 20 hours over a 1-year period (less than 2 hours per month).
The International Tele-Mentor Program, managed out of Colorado US, starts with schools comprised of students as young as 12 years old. Through their mentors, they are taught how to map out a STEM-related education and career path, guided by professional networks that help to implement and fine tune these plans over time. David Neils, executive director of ITP, said that professional mentors from over 20 countries have supported over 47,000 students during the last 20 years.
Telementoring is a process that combines the proven practice of mentoring with the speed and ease of electronic communication, enabling busy professionals to make significant contributions to the academic lives of students. Through mentoring by industry professionals, a corporation helps students develop the skills and foundation to pursue their interests successfully and operate at their potential. “Although research shows that face-to-face mentoring programs can have a variety of positive impacts, many top professionals believe they simply don't have the time to make that kind of commitment. By investing about 30 minutes per week, mentors can help students achieve academic excellence and explore their education and career futures.”
Guided by their mentors, students document the quality of various project outcomes against a rubric or standard. They discuss gaps, if any, between their work and that standard and how they plan to fill the gap. Students also share with mentors how they can leverage the mentor’s help throughout the project and provide insights on how they could have improved as collaborators—a means to continually fine-tune and upgrade the mentoring process.
Speaking on behalf of ITP David Neils explains “the preference is to start the Telementor process at the middle school level, when students are humble, transparent and eager to learn.” The goal is that by the time a student graduates from high school they have in place a continuing education plan, a career plan, and a professional mentoring network. “They’ll know how to recognize high-quality work. These plans are something that should happen for every student.” he said.
In many cases, the mentor/student relationship becomes a long-term, reciprocal program of education and friendship—enriching professional and private lives through the mentoring partnership. It changes the trajectory of lives and serves as a learning experience for both parties. In many ways, the relationship brings to mind an old adage of education: “When I was a student, I learned from my teachers; when I was a teacher, I learned from my students.”
For the titanium industry, both programs complement an ongoing thrust to cultivate students as future engineers, designers, executives, and metallurgists worldwide. The ITA’s WiT committee is pleased to engage in the promotion of mentoring programs available and in attracting students as future leaders of the industry.
More information on both programs will be provided by the WiT group in the coming weeks.
WiT TO MEET AT TITANIUM EUROPE
Dawne Hickton, the first female president of the executive board for the ITA, announced plans to establish the WiT committee, during the ITA’s 2014 annual industry conference and exhibition, which was held in Chicago last September. WiT held its first official meeting Feb. 27 in Los Angeles, California, and has officially approved the group’s charter, executive committee members, and initial slate of near-term goals. The group will gather again on May 11th in Birmingham, England UK in conjunction with the TITANIUM EUROPE 2015 conference and expo where guest speakers Dr Susan Durbin, Associate Professor in Employment Studies and Dr Ana Lopes, Senior Lecture in Human Resource Management from the University of the West of England, UK will present “Designing a Mentoring Scheme for Female Professionals in the Aviation and Aerospace Industry: Research and Reflections.”
The objective of the WiT committee is to contribute to the growth of the overall titanium industry by providing networking opportunities for women, and to take part in programs that advance gender equality in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) courses for elementary, high school and college women. WiT will look to attract, advance and retain professional women interested in the titanium field. In recent years, Dawne Hickton and other ITA leaders have focused on the need for industry stewardship programs—dedicated efforts to cultivate the next generation of titanium designers, engineers, metallurgists and executives. The ITA’s WiT initiative is part of that overall effort.
WOMEN IN TITANIUM EXECUTIVE PROFILE
Holly Both, the vice president of marketing for Plymouth Tube Co., Warrenville, IL, is a member of the executive committee for the International Titanium Association’s (ITA) Women in Titanium (WiT) group. As a member of the executive committee, Both will help develop and implement plans for the group, which earlier this year held its first meeting.
In her role as vice president of marketing Both’s responsibilities include providing leadership for strategic planning, marketing strategies and communications for all units of the company including Plymouth’s titanium division, Plymouth Engineered Shapes.
SHE ‘ACCIDENTLY’ FELL INTO TITANIUM INDUSTRY
Both, quite literally, came to the titanium industry “by accident”; an automotive accident, that is. She had been working in Chicago’s banking and financial industry, as a personal banker and mortgage lender, when she was involved in a car accident. At the time she was living west of Chicago’s in Sycamore, Illinois. After recovering from her injuries, she decided her one-way 72 mile commute was too long, so in 1996 she accepted a marketing position at Plymouth, which was not only more in-line with her career aspirations, but also closer to home. Plymouth Tube is an international supplier of titanium shapes, tubing and extrusions used primarily in the aerospace sector as well as the power and process industries and heavy equipment and industrial markets.
While initially unfamiliar with the durable manufacturing sector, Both did know that the titanium business had excellent potential for growth and had a strong presence in niche markets such as aerospace. She didn’t have a manufacturing or engineering background when she arrived at Plymouth, but Both described herself as a “process-oriented individual” and was drawn to the rigor and precision of the company’s production operations and its focus on continuous improvement via its manufacturing excellence program.
HER CAREER ‘TOOK SHAPE’ AT PLYMOUTH
Upon arriving at Plymouth Tube, Both had questions regarding the marketing department’s overall strategy. The marketing unit, at the time, was a newly defined function for the company. As such, in order to gain a better handle on the business, she first embedded herself into the sales team to understand the company’s customer base and markets served.
Both quickly learned that within Plymouth’s autonomous, decentralized organizational struction, the company has a culture of learning and highly collaborative teamwork. She leveraged this strength to learn about the titanium aerospace market from Plymouth veterans Gary Ezell and Josh Phillips. As her career took root at Plymouth, people like Van Van Pelt, who is now the Chairman of the Board for Plymouth, urged her to continue her education and get an MBA degree which she did in 2010 at a two-year program at Northwestern University’s Kellogg School of Management. She received her undergraduate degree in marketing in 1994 at Northern Illinois University. “Van would always ask me: ‘when are you going to go back to school?’” Both said she greatly appreciated this encouragement and has a great appreciation for the company’s ongoing educational requirement for its employees.
OPPORTUNITIES FOR FEMALE STUDENTS
In her aspiration to join WiT, Both felt she had the skills and experience to “help ensure the success” of the group. She said he was excited to learn about the WiT’s mission to network women within and into the titanium industry while simultaneously promoting the industry as an opportunity for high school and college female students. She’s also a member of the Association of Women in Metals.
“My involvement (in WiT) would be an excellent starting point for me and for Plymouth to become more active in the ITA and its subcommittees. I feel strongly about the value of the ITA and WiT and the supplemental educational, informational, networking and development opportunities they provide for our industry’s current and future professionals.”
EMBRACING THE MENTORING SPIRIT
Much of the mission for WiT involves mentoring women currently in the titanium field to support their career development plans and leadership skills, as well as encouraging prospective candidates looking to enter the market. Both has volunteered time this summer at Northern Illinois University’s STEM summer camps for kids. Recently Both became involved with The Kishwaukee Education Consortium of Northern Illinois and its Manufacturing Technology Academy, a 2-year high school program designed to prepare students for careers in manufacturing. Both will be speaking to students about her manufacturing career path and will answer questions about the opportunities available to them.
As a member of the WiT executive committee, Both will be working with Michelle M. Pharand, WiT vice chair and the director of sales and business development for Dynamet Inc., a subsidiary of Carpenter Technology Corp., Wyomissing, PA, and Dawne S. Hickton, the vice chair, president and chief executive officer of RTI International Metals Inc., Pittsburgh, who founded the WiT group. Jennifer Simpson serves as the executive director of the International Titanium Association.
Novel Welding, Joining Techniques Focus on Machining and Additive Manufacturing
Novel technologies will be featured during the Welding and Allied Technologies session at TITANIUM EUROPE 2015, held the 11th – 13th May at the Hilton Birmingham Metropole Hotel National Exhibition Centre in the UK. Ian D. Harris, Ph.D., technology leader, arc welding, for Edison Welding Institute (EWI), Columbus, OH, is moderator for the session.
Harris’ colleague, Matt Short, EWI ultrasonics technology leader, will discuss the EWI ultrasonic-assisted machining processes that can be retrofitted into standard machine tools. Short said EWI has developed a system that “sends a longitudinal wave through the tool, generating an intense oscillating motion at the material interface. Research conducted on titanium and many other materials and processes have shown significant improvements in tool life, feed rates, surface finish, and quality.”
EWI’s Acoustech Machining
Known as “Acoustech™ Machining,” Short said the technology “dramatically improves metalworking capabilities by bringing ultrasonic performance to new and existing manufacturing equipment,” which is designed to fit existing metalworking equipment and tooling.
Designed especially for hard-to-machine metals, like titanium, Acoustech, developed in recent years by EWI, is a patented system that provides acoustical vibrations to conventional cutting tools, bringing the many benefits of ultrasonic technology to today’s plant floor. Benefits of the system include accelerated production rates and extended tool life, according to Short. He said manufacturers can increase output and profits “without purchasing new machining centers, because this patented Acoustech tool holder was specifically engineered to work with standard equipment installed throughout the manufacturing industry.”
By applying high-power ultrasonic vibrations to traditional machining processes (drilling, turning, milling), Acoustech can enhance the performance of conventional machining equipment and boost the speed and accuracy of machining operations. Short explained that Acoustech utilizes high-power ultrasound within conventional tool holders, which produce longitudinal vibrations along the tool’s axis of rotation at 20-kHz, but very small displacements such as 10μm. This motion produces a friction reduction effect, thereby reducing cutting forces due to the oscillating motion of the tool tip.
“Achieving high-power ultrasonics with conventional metalworking equipment and tools gives manufacturers a significant competitive advantage,” Short said. “The key benefit of ultrasonics is the reduction in cutting force, which ensures many advantages. Tool life is improved due to a reduction in cutting temperatures. Coolants may be reduced, sometimes eliminated. Dimensional stability is improved due to reduced tool deflection.”
Benefits from the Acoustech system include lower operating forces, increased feed rates, improved chip extraction and reduced burr formation and improved surface finish of machined components. EWI describes Acoustech as a “green” technology that does not involve slurry abrasives or coolants.
‘Friction and Forge’
Bertrand Flipo, senior project leader for The Welding Institute (TWI), Cambridge, UK, will provide an update on his group’s “Friction and Forge Processes,” which covers recent developments and economical assessments in the joining of titanium alloys using linear friction welding (LFW). Flipo said the production of near-net shape aerospace components represents the focus for this technology.
LFW is an automated, self-regulating, self-cleaning and highly repeatable friction welding process, which delivers fast cycle times (under five minutes), according to Flipo. It preserves the forged microstructure of aerospace parts and can be post-weld heat treated and makes use of common stock plates for producing a range of parts.
Flipo explained that many tight-tolerance aerospace components typically are machined from solid blocks of titanium alloys, which results in relatively poor buy-to-fly ratios. He said the use of near-net shape parts produced by LFW can significantly reduce production costs for a wide range of aerospace components.
He said the buildup of near-net shape parts by LFW also provides the opportunity for selection of appropriate dissimilar alloys in different parts of the structure. This approach allows the production of tailored components, resulting in both functional and economic benefits. Examples range from simple LFW fabrications, to more complex components produced by sequential LFW of multiple parts.
According to TWI information posted online, the LFW process is finding increasing use as a manufacturing technology for the production of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V aerospace components. Computational models give an insight into the process; however, there is limited experimental data that can be used for either modeling inputs or validation. To address this problem, a design of experiments recently was used to investigate the influence of the LFW process inputs on various outputs for experimental Ti-6Al-4V welds. The finite element analysis software “Deform” was also used in conjunction with the experimental findings to investigate the heating of the work pieces.
Key findings showed that the average interface force and coefficient of friction during each phase of the process were insensitive to the rubbing velocity; and the interface of the work pieces reached a temperature of approximately 1000 C during the friction phase. TWI said this work has enabled a greater insight into the underlying process physics and will aid future modeling investigations.
West County Welding Supplies & M. Braun Alliance
West Country Welding Supplies Ltd., located in Bristol, UK, a major provider of industrial welding equipment, recently unveiled its new off-the-shelf welding chamber, developed through a partnership with M. Braun Inertgas-Systeme GmbH, Garching, Germany, which is designed for the titanium and specialty metals.
Market applications include aerospace, semiconductor, medical, scientific and nuclear industries, all of which have a demand for high-quality welded components. The company said increasing industrial standards have forced these industries to look again at their welding techniques and processes “in order to achieve the perfect titanium weld.”
According to Kyle Loomes, West Country’s 10/10 German-engineered, stainless steel welding chamber delivers titanium welds need to be carried out with minimal oxygen in the weld area. The welding workstations have an ergonomic design that provides “operator comfort while being fully equipped with a shaded sliding eye shield and internal lighting to a fast flow gas purge system and an insulated torch feedthrough.”
M. Braun asserts itself as a world leader in “glove box” welding technology, providing turnkey solutions for all inert gas welding applications, according to West Country, which offers full customer support, from installation and commissioning of the chamber through to complete operator training.
Development efforts at EWI
EWI’s Ian Harris will describe other welding and joining additive manufacturing projects currently under development at his group—projects that are in the process of being transitioned into full commercial manufacturing systems. He said EWI is performing directed energy deposition (DED) additive manufacturing with laser, arc, and ultrasonic energy sources.
The thrust and focus for these development efforts, according to Harris, is to significantly increase additive manufacturing deposition rates (up to 40 pounds per hour), in order to produce high-value, complex parts—such as pumps and valves—from titanium alloys and nickel-based superalloys. Part size would fit into a 4 by 4 foot production cell. The cell employs a six-axis robot and gas tungsten arc welding (also known as tungsten inert gas welding, or TIG) with preheated wire. Harris pointed out that is less expensive and more readily available in the supply chain compared with powder metal.
“We’re addressing market needs (for new generations of additive manufacturing),” Harris said. “We look to identify technologies that seem promising, but need additional commercial development work.” He also noted an inherent advantage of additive manufacturing is the reduction of scrap rates, compared with traditional machining, which would result in a potential 50-percent per-part cost reduction, reducing the buy-to-fly ratio.
Describing his upcoming presentation, Harris said “the ubiquitous use of robotic arc welding, with added CAD-to-part capability, can become a significant additive manufacturing resource for the supply chain in aerospace, oil and gas, and other markets. EWI is developing the software linkage for true CAD-to-part additive manufacturing using six-axis robotics, as well as the bead size/spacing to achieve both the desired microstructure and properties, and the build strategy/path.”
EWI is currently working through the ASTM F42 committee on additive manufacturing technologies (formed in 2009) on the development of standards for DED using arc, laser, and electron beam processes for free-form fabrication of parts larger than can be built in a laser powder-bed fusion (PBF) system. DED processes are not limited in part-size capability compared to PBF processes. They can also build parts much faster at deposition rates of 1 to 40 pounds per hour, depending on material and process selection, and can be developed to meet the required microstructure and properties, Harris said.
Markets targeted by EWI for this high deposition rate for additive manufacturing would be aerospace and oil and gas, according to Harris. The goal is to create “a suite of processes” that can deliver computer-aided design (CAD) to part capability on a commercial scale. EWI is reviewing potential business opportunities for large-part additive manufacturing on a market by market basis. The effort would involve EWI working with various partners and integrators to build such a manufacturing capability, which could involve an integrated, multi-station production system for downstream heat treating, annealing and part finishing. “We’re already thinking beyond a base-line system,” Harris indicated. For example, one program, now in the pilot stage of development, is producing a 3-foot long, curved fin-like aerospace structure.
Another example of EWI’s additive manufacturing capability is the Laser Powder Bed Fusion process. According to information posted on the company’s website (http://ewi.org/technologies/additive-manufacturing) EWI uses a EOS GmbH Electro Optical System (EOS) M280 Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS™) platform with a 400W laser. EWI is a materials development partner with EOS North America with the technical ability to support the development of custom process parameter sets for existing or new alloys via the EOS M280.
EOS GmbH (Electro Optical Systems), Munich, Germany, is involved in commercial utilization of laser technology generating 3-D or additive manufacturing components, layer by layer directly from CAD data.
Additive Manufacturing Consortium
EWI stated they are focused on “developing and maturing metal additive manufacturing processes to produce functional components, not prototypes.” In 2010, EWI established the Additive Manufacturing Consortium (AMC) in 2010 with a mission of advancing the manufacturing readiness of this emerging technology. The AMC, directed by Shawn Kelly, Ph.D., a senior engineer at EWI, is a national group of industry, government, academic and non-profit research organizations with the mission of accelerating and advancing the manufacturing readiness of metal additive manufacturing technology.
An article written by Dr. Kelly for the June 2014 edition of Welding & Gas Today Online, said that, from an industrial perspective, 3D printing/additive manufacturing is being explored in a number of different industrial segments, most notably aerospace and medical. “The aerospace community, which encounters high value materials, requires components in lower volumes and can benefit significantly from the lifetime energy savings enabled from the lightweight designs, has been a leader thus far. The medical industry is also an early adopter of the technology for the above reasons, and the ability to customize the part for patient-specific needs makes it appealing.” Kelly pointed out that, according to a May 2013 study by the McKinsey Global Institute, it’s estimated the total future market potential for additive manufacturing could reach “an impact of up to $550 billion per year by 2025.” For more information on the AMC, contact the Kelly by phone (1-614-688-5145) or e-mail (firstname.lastname@example.org).
ITA’s Committee for Industrial Applications Hosting Life-Cycle Costing Session Demonstrating True Long-Term Value of Titanium
Life-cycle costing has long been put forth as a favorable metric to demonstrate titanium’s “good value” as a material of choice in a host of industrial applications. However, despite the math and logic that supports the use of titanium compared with competing materials, industry executives privately admit that this argument, despite its merits, falls short. In some cases, titanium is passed over due to short-term budget constraints for so-called “less-expensive” metals. It’s fair to say titanium’s durability and affordability as a long-term investment for infrastructure or industrial projects simply doesn’t convince everyone.
Barry Benator is looking to address that entrenched mindset and will provide titanium executives and sales representatives the tools they need to make a more convincing case to win business. Benator, the founder and president of Benetech Inc., Roswell, GA, a leadership and management consulting and training firm serving clients throughout the United States and internationally, produces an online seminar on life-cycle costing for the energy industry, and now looks to impart that knowledge to the titanium sector.
ITA has organized a ½ day session at the upcoming TITANIUM USA 2015 conference and exhibition to be held this October 4th – 7th in Orlando, Florida USA. Barry wants to give the titanium industry the “ammunition” it needs to prove to potential customers how and why titanium can be a more affordable investment over the long term, even if there is an initial, higher “up-front” price tag compare with other metals.
Simply put, Benator defines life-cycle costing as a calculation to determine the long-term payback for an investment, taking into account the savings and cost over the entire life of a product or system. “The basic idea is: do I spend a bit more now to get a better system for the long haul,” Benator explained. “Customers are always concerned about their return on investment. A lot of this is intuitive, but some people have to understand it and ‘see’ it before they truly believe it. I try to put together the rationale behind the numbers.”
Businesses and governments make important decisions based on financial benefits (and risks) to their organizations. For industrial projects like desalination installations, heat exchangers, and chemical or food processing, factors such as annual maintenance costs, reliability, production speeds and long-term performance come into play. And of course, material costs are factored into the front end of the equation. Benator said his one-day course can provide ITA members with practical tools to help explain and prove the financial benefits of titanium, especially when the application calls for corrosion resistance and high strength. The course will focus on sound financial comparisons of the strength, durability and other benefits of titanium.
As spelled out in the course description prepared by Benator, the economic analysis method known as life cycle costing (LCC) calculates the total cost incurred with the ownership, lease or rental of a facility or equipment over its lifetime. There are several different methods of LCC analysis that the professional can use to make a purchase decision. Although leasing and rental are also options, it is assumed that the organization will use a financial advisor to evaluate ownership, leasing, and rental options.
He said first it’s necessary to understand the concept of “time value of money.” In analyzing any cost, investment, or stream of cash flows, it’s extremely important to recognize that money, much like any commodity, has a time value. As an illustration, he said to consider the option of receiving a $100 bill now or $100 bill one year from now. Most people would rather have the $100 bill now because they can invest it and earn a return on their investment.
For example, $100 invested now at a 10-percent interest rate will earn $10 in one year. The investor will have a total of $110 at the end of one year. Compounded annually, the investor will have $121 at the end of two years. Even with zero inflation, money in the future is worth less than the same amount of money now. Again, this is because money can be invested now to earn a return on the investment for the investor.
Similarly, he said cash in the future can be “discounted” to the present through the use of discount formulas and tables that are the inverse of the familiar compound interest formulas and tables. This can determine the present value of a future amount of money.
Benator’s upcoming session in Orlando will provide the essential definitions of net-present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) and how to calculate these values in order to illuminate the financial benefits of titanium compared to other metals. He will demonstrate how to use LCC spreadsheets to quickly and accurately determine NPV, IRR and SIR.
Over the years Benator’s financial expertise and cost-calculating systems have been devoted to the energy business—a knowledge base that he now hopes to redeploy to the titanium industry. And while he’s not a metallurgist, industrial designer or manufacturing engineer, he did spend more than 20 years in the Navy, including four years of active duty as a naval lieutenant on a nuclear submarine. During that period, when he was studying submarine design and capabilities, he came to understand that Russian-made titanium subs were lighter, faster and more agile and durable than U.S.-built steel vessels.
The Life Cycle Costing course developed by Barry Benator has been approved by the Washington D.C. based American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems Registered Provider program for continuing education credits. The Association of Energy Engineers, headquartered in Atlanta, is an approved training provider of the program.
Benator has more than 30 years of consulting and training experience for corporate and governmental clients and has taught energy engineering and LCC skills to more than 5,000 energy engineers, facility managers and utility personnel. He received an M.B.A. in finance from Loyola College and M.S. and bachelor degrees in electrical engineering from Georgia Tech. He is a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Master Practitioner, a certified Situational Leadership® Program trainer, and a Professional Engineer/Certified Energy Manager.