World Titanium Industry Demand Trends
Commercial Aerostructures Market Finally Ready for Take Off
Henry S. Seiner
Vice President – Business Strategy
TIMET, Titanium Metals Corporation
Today’s Aerostructures market is primed for growth. It is shaped by supply chain alignment, increasing oil prices, and decreasing interest rates. These factors along with a forecasted fleet of greater than 50,000 in 2035 and the OEM’s record backlogs and build rates give rise to a bullish forecast for the titanium demand from the Aerostructures market.
Titanium in the Military: What About Tomorrow?
Senior Director Commercial, Europe and Asia
RTI International Metals, Inc.
The changing nature of defense threats is driving a transformation in the systems and tools utilized to combat those threats. It is a transformation that is also raising new questions about the role of titanium as a strategic defense material. How is the new defense picture affecting use of titanium in the weapons and support systems of today and in the future? Is sequestration behind us? Should we count parts, not pounds? Mr. Klein will discuss these and related issues in the context of current U.S. and European defense budgets and the stresses felt in an era of austerity, juxtaposed against growing Chinese defense spending. He will also highlight how titanium has transformed from a strategic material whose value was measured in pounds, to an innovative material whose uses are far more varied and for which value is measured by its inclusion in sophisticated, advanced technology systems.
Titanium Demand and Trends in the Jet Engine Market
Senior Vice President - Commercial
Titanium is used in jet engines for its excellent mechanical properties, ease of fabrication, and light weight. The next generation of engines will continue to use titanium extensively even as engine temperatures are increasing in the effort to drive efficiencies higher. This presentation discusses the new engine programs and forecast for jet engine deliveries, the demand for titanium used in the production of jet engine components, and the effect of changes in jet engine design on future titanium demand.
Overview of Russian Market for Titanium Mill Products
Michael G. Metz
VSMPO Tirus US
US Demand for titanium in the Russian Federation is growing significantly, with overall demand expected to double between 2010 and 2017. Aircraft industry demand is the primary driver for growth, along with solid demand from power generation, shipbuilding, and general industrial uses for titanium.
Global Trends in Industrial Markets
Executive Vice President
Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes (VHET)
Significant volume of titanium is consumed every year as plates, sheets or tubes by the Power Generation, Process and Desalination markets. These volumes have been fluctuating significantly over the recent past, generating lack of visibility and concern for all the players along the supply chain. What are the drivers and trend on market?
Vallourec Heat Exchanger Tubes has collected views and experiences of various suppliers and end users and has built a unique understanding of these complex markets. Albert BRUNEAU will discuss the key drivers of titanium consumption in the industrial market and provide an estimate of the evolution in the coming years.
The Way Forward for Chinese Titanium Industry Under New Economic Situation
Dr. Aijun Huang
Executive Vice President - High Performance Material
Baosteel Special Metal Co., Ltd.
Chinese economy growth is expected less than 7% in first quarter of 2015 which hits lowest point in last a few years. This indicates the Chinese economy is in a new situation which already has great impact on Chinese Titanium industry. Over capacity in sponge and melt production already led to the closure of a few major players in China. This presentation try to understand the way forward of Chinese titanium industry by analyzing the performance of whole industry in 2014 and new policies which may affect the industry. It is expected that the presentation can stimulate some discussion on how Chinese Titanium Industry can serve China and the rest of world better.
Speakers will provide their prospective of current and forecast demand for titanium. Presentation topics will include:
- How do current inventory levels compare to standard historic inventory levels as a function of business volume and backlog?
- What effect does this have on current distribution business and what are the potential pitfalls as industry production catches up with demand?
The goal of this session is to gain insight into one of the most difficult aspects of the titanium market cycle to measure-industry inventory levels.
Managing Director Europe
Titanium Industries, Inc. (T.I.)
Industrial Metals International Ltd.
Economy of Scale – A Challenge for Titanium Aluminides
Head of R&D Vacuum Metallurgy Division
ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH
During years of development and testing, Titanium Aluminides have shown potentials such that they are now at the level of industrial application. With this material evolution in mind the focus in material, process and equipment design will shift from “properties” driven demands, where unique material properties can overrule economics to a certain extent, towards clearly cost considerations. For Titanium Aluminides this could mean increasing quantities of material usage will require significant cost reductions, otherwise it may be unlikely this material class will be designed into critical uses.
Today nearly all applications need Titanium Aluminides feedstock that fall within certain size limitations. Be it casting processes, powder production or forging of sheets and blades, all those shaping processes call for feedstock in the range between 2-5”. If one furthermore takes into account a strong sensitivity of TiAl with respect to deviations in chemical composition, especially slight changes in Aluminum can have a tremendous impact on properties; it becomes obvious that material production has its challenges and therefore, its costs. While on one hand larger volumes and large dimensions could bring down the costs of material production, on the other hand today’s feedstock requirements will make a dimension conversion unavoidable. Due to the high ductile/brittle transition temperature of Titanium Aluminides and keeping the requirements of chemical homogeneity in mind this conversion usually has to be done in the liquid state. Therefore, an increasing size of feedstock for casting and powder production could provide means to significant reduction of feedstock costs.
Actual Concepts for TiAl Alloy and Process Development
Dr. Florian Pyczak
Institute for Materials Research, Department of Metal Physics
TiAl-alloys are introduced in aircraft engines and have limited service in automotive engines but still numerous challenges in alloy development and processing exist. The presentation will highlight development trends of actual high strength β-TiAl alloys which were optimized for forging processes. These alloys already contain other phases in addition to α, γ2 and β, the phases typically present in TiAl-alloys, due to the addition of high amounts of β-stabilizing elements. Often seen as detrimental these additional phases can also be used as building blocks for new microstructures in TiAl-alloys. As an example alloys with high amounts of orthorhombic phases will be presented. In processing powder metallurgy in combination with metal injection molding (MIM) has potential as an alternative near net-shape processing route. MIM parts show good chemical and microstructural homogeneity. Nevertheless, the pick-up of impurities must be limited and full consolidation of the microstructure must be ensured by tight process control.
Safe Handling of Combustible Metals
Titanium Fires Simplified
Robert G. Lee
If you handle titanium fines or create titanium fines you will likely have a fire. The regulations for the safe handling and transport are voluminous and contain multiple cross-references. This presentation will attempt to identify simple practical steps that can be taken avoid spectacular videos, injuries to employees and massive damage to equipment and facilities.
Safe Handling of Combustible Materials
Kevin L. Kreitman
Metals in a combustible form including titanium, can present fire and explosion hazards. Improper handling of these materials in fire incidents, place personnel and responders at great risk, these risks however can be minimized through proper pre-planning, engineering, housekeeping, and training.
Preventive actions are important to minimizing potential fire and explosion hazards. Knowledge of the risks associated with the metal and the form it is in along with proper housekeeping will greatly reduce risks and likelihood of an incident.
Should an incident occur however, how the incident is handled is critical to a safe outcome. The proper handling of fires involving titanium and metals in a combustible form does not occur by happenstance. One of the most important items is to ensure that pre-planning with emergency responders on the risks and hazards associated with titanium and other metals in a combustible form has taken place prior to the incident, to ensure proper actions are taken in the handling of the emergency which is critical to a safe outcome.
Developing a close working relationship with the facility and working closely with facility personnel is a must to minimize risks for the facility and emergency responders. Incidents involving a fire at a titanium or other facility involving metals in combustible form may very well present additional risks based on the form of the material involved, such as powders, dusts, molten metal, as well as the potential involvement of chemicals that may be associated with the processing of the metal.
It is essential that facility personnel and emergency responders develop a close working relationship and policies and procedures to ensure the safe handling of incident should they occur. This presentation will provide a general overview of NFPA’s Combustible Metal Standard, the importance of housekeeping, and the proper handling of fires involving titanium and metals combustible form.
Advancements in Powder Metallurgy
Titanium Powder Production by the Metalysis Process
Director of Business Development
Authors: Kartik Rao, Ian Mellor and Dion Vaughan
Metalysis has developed a unique and protected technology to produce metal powders using electrolysis. The process has been demonstrated for titanium powder, both pure and alloyed. There have been significant technical developments within the past two years, most notably the use of rutile as a low cost feedstock to produce alloyed powder directly and the development of a spherical grade of powder suitable for additive manufacturing. These developments potentially enable Metalysis to produce titanium powders for applications in industries beyond aerospace and bio-medical, and into new markets such as the automotive industry.
Characteristics and Applications of Ti-alloy Powders via Electrode Induction Melting Gas Atomization
Dr.-Ing. Wilfredo Garcia Vargas
Head of Development
TLS Technik GmbH and Co Spezialpulver KG
Titanium alloys are nowadays considered one of the most promising advanced materials due to their excellent combination high mechanical properties/low weight and corrosion behavior. This advantage promotes their applications in many fields such as aerospace, automotive industry, chemical processing, human implants and dentistry devices. Nevertheless, the high cost is a discussion regarding their use in comparison with other competing materials. Powder metallurgy offers a cost-effective fabrication route, which allows obtaining high quality powders with special features like spherical shape, good flowability, low oxygen content and narrow Gaussian distribution.
Electrode Induction-Melt Inert Gas Atomization (EIGA) is a ceramic-free atomization process, where a prealloyed bar is melted by induction. The process involves a melting technology in conjunction with inert gas atomization. The melt falls from the electrode into the atomization nozzle and is disintegrated by an inert gas jet.
The EIGA process was initially developed for the production of titanium and niobium alloys, but it can be used for other high temperature materials. The present work deals with a physical and chemical characterization of commercially titanium alloy powders produced by electrode induction melting.
Mineral to Metal: Processing of titaniferous ore to synthetic rutile (TiO2) and Ti metal
Dr. Jeya Ephraim
School of Engineering and Informatics
University of Bradford
Titanium is abundantly available in the form of complex oxides in minerals such as Rutile, ilmenite, brookite, leucoxene and perovskites. They are available as beach sands in countries namely Australia, India, USA and South Africa. The availability of natural ore Rutile (TiO2) is depleting which has made the Scientists to use titaniferous ore ilmenite to process to synthetic rutile. Besides having oxides of titanium and iron, the mineral ilmenite also contain trace amounts of oxides of d block metals and rare earths (RE) including Uranium and Thorium which makes the separation of titanium dioxide more difficult. Other significant mineralogical factors to take into consideration for ilmenite minerals is the presence as exolved phases of zircon (ZrSiO4) and monazite (Al,RE) PO4 which are finely distributed within the ilmenite matrix, and make their physical separation extremely difficult. In this paper processing of ilmenite via alkali roasting followed by leaching to produce synthetic rutile will be compared with the reduction followed by aeration leaching route will be compared to assess the best route for the production of synthetic rutile.
Welding & Allied Technologies
Linear Friction Welding for Increased Aerospace Titanium Productivity
Mr. Bertrand Flipo
Senior Project Leader
TWI - Friction and Forge Processes
This presentation will describe recent developments and economical assessments in the joining of Titanium alloys using Linear Friction Welding (LFW), focusing on the use of LFW to produce near net shape parts for aerospace components. Currently, many such components are machined from solid blocks of Titanium alloys, resulting in relatively poor buy-to-fly ratios. The use of near net shape parts produced by LFW, can significantly reduce production costs for a wide range of aerospace components.
Build up of near net shape parts by LFW also provides the opportunity for selection of appropriate dissimilar alloys in different parts of the structure. This approach allows the production of tailored components, resulting in both functional and economic benefits. Examples will be shown of the application of this approach to aerospace components, from simple LFW fabrications, to more complex components produced by sequential LFW of multiple parts to build up structures.
In summary this presentation will provide an update on recent Linear Friction Welding developments and their potential economic benefits, aimed at improving product effectiveness and reducing production costs for a wide range of aerospace components.
Welding and DED AM of Titanium
Dr. Ian D. Harris
Technology Leader, Arc Welding
As technologies, arc welding (AW) and additive manufacturing (AM) are not typically associated with each other as, to many, AM is already synonymous with powder bed systems building small and intricate parts. For years, however, EWI has applied our extensive knowledge of bead size selection and control for joining and cladding to additive manufacturing (AM) of large parts using arc welding, especially hot wire Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW-HW), since this process is already qualified and well known for high quality in aerospace, nuclear and other high demand applications and markets.
The ubiquitous use of robotic arc welding, with added CAD-to-part capability, can become a significant AM resource for the supply chain in aerospace, oil and gas, and other markets, , for the right business case, which involves full finish machining of the as-built part after any required PWHT. EWI is developing the software linkage for true CAD-to-part AM using six-axis robotics, as well as the bead size/spacing to achieve both the desired microstructure and properties, and the build strategy/path.
EWI is currently working through ASTM F42 on the development of standards for Directed Energy Deposition (DED) using arc, laser, and electron beam processes for freeform fabrication of parts larger than can be built in a laser powder bed fusion (PBF-L) system. DED processes are not limited in part-size capability compared to PBF processes. They can also build parts much faster (at deposition rates of 1-40 lbs./hr.) depending on material and process selection, and can be developed to meet the required microstructure and properties.
Ultrasonics Technology Leader
Ultrasonic assisted machining processes consist of the application of high power ultrasound, at the kilohertz frequency and kilowatt power levels, to standard machine tools such as twist dills, milling cutters, taps, and reamers as examples. Challenges associated with the process include generating resonance within conventional metalworking tooling and isolating acoustic energy from the machine spindle bearings or structure. EWI has developed a unique system which sends a longitudinal wave through the tool generating an intense oscillating motion at the material interface. Research conducted on titanium and many other materials and processes have shown significant improvements in tool life, feed rates, surface finish, and quality.
In addition to the fundamentals of the technology, Matt Short will review application studies and demonstrated benefits addressing many of today’s manufacturing needs.
SVP Material and Parts Procurement
Chairman of the Airbus Group Material Board
Olivier Cauquil is responsible for Material and Parts Procurement at Airbus. As such, he deals with metallic and composite materials, along with standard and detail parts for all Airbus programmes. He manages teams located in the 4 main Airbus countries. His main challenge is to structurally adapt the supply chain to properly cope with the upcoming production ramp-ups. He also chairs the Airbus Group Material Board that ensures sourcing and contracting on behalf of the whole group for materials and standard parts, taking benefit of consolidated volumes from all BUs. Olivier started his career with Aerospatiale, Aircraft division. He first held different jobs in the field of information system and industrial organization projects management, and then joined Procurement in the late 90’s. He has been responsible for Avionics Procurement and from 2006, VP Equipment and Systems Procurement at Airbus operations SAS. In 2010 he became VP Procurement Strategy and Business Operations at Airbus SAS.
3D Additive Manufacturing
Sponsored by RTI International Metals, Inc.
Expectations of what Additive Manufacturing (AM) can provide as an advanced manufacturing technique have never been higher. AM offers unique advantages that manufacturers and OEMs are beginning to seize on including new, lightweight designs, increased part complexity and potential cost reductions coupled with performance improvements. The benefits to the titanium industry are significant however the industry need to carefully navigate methods to achieve consistent product in a very young industry. These challenges lie primarily in material quality and characterization, as well as in scale up from prototyping to mass production. This session will review these issues and offer examples of how various industry is addressing them.
Metallic Technologies & Surface Engineering at EADS Innovation Works
Research Team Leader
Metallic Technologies & Surface Engineering at EADS Innovation Works
Titanium Additive Manufacturing
Vice President, Sales & Marketing
Dr. Robert Sharman
Head of Metallics Technology
Wire Plus Arc Additive Manufacture of Large Scale Titanium Parts
Adrian C. Addison
Senior Research Fellow in Additive Manufacture, School Of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing
The presentation will cover the WAAM process for titanium, how it works, the material properties that can be achieved and some of the parts which have been built at Cranfield University. The economics and outputs of recent cost modelling of the process will also be discussed.
Recycling of Titanium
Sponsored by ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH
Edward J. Newman
Senior Vice President
United Alloys & Metals, Inc.
This paper will focus on two main topics. The first will trace the evolution of the movement of titanium scrap from the scrap generation point back to the various users of titanium scrap, focusing on titanium producers but also including steel and ferro-titanium producers. We will look at the various factors that have lead to this evolution including, technical advances, the implementation of buy back agreements, and industry consolidation. We will also explore advances that have allowed for increased use of titanium scrap within the titanium industry and opportunities moving forward that could allow the titanium industry to capture a larger percentage of the overall scrap stream.
From Scrap to Ingot
Sales and Project Manager Remelting Department
ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH
For the production of Titanium ingots and slabs, the use of Titanium scrap has become the second raw material source. Taking into account buy-to-fly ratios of up to 20:1, Titanium parts produced by the conventional manufacturing routes generate plenty of scrap which can be recovered back into precious ingot material. The scrap that derives from different processing routes has a wide range of physical characteristics with a variety of geometries from the small sized turnings of machining processes to the large, bulky solids of slabs or forging ends and everything in between.
However, there are certain pre-conditions that have to be considered, if this scrap material shall be converted into high quality ingot material. Besides the different pre-treatment steps of the scrap material before melting, the melting process itself has to fulfill certain quality criteria in order to be qualified for the production of high quality ingots. “Cold Hearth Refining” (CHR) has become the state of the art melting process that offers superior capabilities and required features. Depending on the Titanium grade and the content of volatile elements either Electron Beam Guns or Plasma Torches are the preferred energy source for the CHR- process. Both processes (EB-CHR and PA-CHR) have their advantages and disadvantages. Depending on the scrap size, different feeding systems have to be utilized and customized in order to efficiently feed the scrap material for melting. Also ingot withdrawal systems can differ in concept, depending on required ingot dimension and shape.
Electron Beam Cold Hearth Remelting of Titanium and Scrap Control by LIBS Technology
Jürgen Kiese, Dr. Ing.
Head of Department for Process Development of Titanium
VDM Metals GmbH
Hearth melting of titanium and its alloys becomes more and more important. The original reason for this melting technique was to eliminate any inclusions from titanium alloys particularly used in critical rotating parts. Nowadays, environmental and economic aspects are becoming increasingly important. As the main reason may be mentioned here, protecting the world's resources by using the high volume of the existing titanium scrap.
The melting of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy in an EB furnace is a challenge. It has been shown that it is absolutely necessary to obtain a stable process with a constant melting rate. In particular, however, it is also necessary to use only "clean" scrap. The scrap should always be free from contamination and a reliable analysis should not be missed. To meet these demands, a publicly funded project was initiated, called RETURN. In this project the fundamentals and requirements should be developed to ensure 100 percent scrap inspection using LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy). One of the main aims here is to capture every scrap piece, to inspect every piece and also to analyze each piece. In principle there are no differences between individual chips and individual scrap solids.